Uriel Simon, Jonah (JPS Bible Commentary; Philadelphia, PA.: Jewish Publication Society, 1999), xliii, 52 pp.
Simon's treatment of the text is first-rate, and his attention to literary detail, insightful. For example, Simon discusses how key words, growing phrases, and punning play important linking roles between narrative sections. To cite a couple of his examples, he notes that word play links the story's agents of "appointment," e.g., dag gadol "great fish" (2:1), tola`at ba`alot "worm at dawn" (4:7), and ruah harashit "a quiet...wind" (4:8), and that the repetition of the root yrd "go down" is "intentionally hidden in his fourth descent-into the depths of the sleep (va-yeradam, "and feel asleep" [1:5])..." (p. xxxii).
Simon has a keen eye also for literary structure. He adjusts, for example, the current understanding of the structure of Jonah 1 by revising the concentric structures model proposed by N. Lohfink and R. Pesch.(1) As he argues, their assertions about structure were based more on "tendentious characterizations of elements...not thematic but formal links, such as alteration of the protagonist's speeches and the narrator's comments" (p. xxvii). Instead, he asserts:
Though Simon's approach is primarily literary (and historical), and therefore mostly interested in treating the text as we have it, and not according to reconstructions, he does not shy from positing that chapter 2, Jonah's Psalm, was added to the book at a later date, though the analogs he offers in support of this notion could just as easily be explained as deriving from different Vorlages as well. (For example, Hezekiah's prayer in Isa 38:9-20, but not in 2 Kgs 20:2; Azariah's prayer in the Septuagint's [LXX] version of Daniel 3, but not in the Masoretic text's Daniel 3:23; and the prayers of Mordechai and Esther added after Esther 4:7 in the LXX.)
Moreover, Simon distinguishes his literary treatment of Jonah from others by approaching Jonah not as an ironic satire, but a compassionate irony. The difference is a subtle one that rethinks the function of humor in the story,(2) and thus, changes the way we understand the prophet, his role, and the story's overall purpose. As Simon cautions:
This is a pathos-amplifying sort of humor, one which "...looks down on the hero and painfully exposes his failures, but it is forgiving: It sets the hero in his proper place without humiliating him and restores him to his dignity without abasing him" (p. xxii). This characterization of Jonah changes our conception of the prophet's hubris and causes us to reassess the book's literary genre.
For Simon, such an approach to Jonah reveals the paradoxical nature of the prophet's portrayal and charts a very different interpretative strategy for the reader.
I have little to offer by way of criticism of this work. Only in passing do I note the presence of two unfortunate typographical errors that have crept into the text (t-w-l for t-w-l [with dotted t], p. xxxi, and `-l-f for `-t-f, p. 23); but they in no way deter. Simon's presentation of the material is even-handed throughout, and is in continual dialogue with ancient Near Eastern materials, as well as with the medieval Hebrew commentaries. In all, an insightful addition to the JPS Tanakh commentary series.
Scott B. Noegel
University of Washington
Footnotes1. N. Lohfink, "Jona ging zur Stadt hinaus (Jon 4,5)," Biblische Zeitschrift 5 (1961), 185-203; R. Pesch, "Zur konzentrischen Struktur von Jona I," Biblica 47 (1966), 677-581. Back
2. For a similar approach to biblical humor see most recently, e.g., J. Whilliam Whedbee, The Bible and the Comic Vision (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998). For a contrary treatment of humor in Jonah see David Marcus, From Balaam to Jonah: Anti-prophetic Satire in the Hebrew Bible (Atlanta, GA.: Scholars Press, 1995).Back